Search the Community
Showing results for tags 'psychology'.
Found 1 result
The topic of biopsychology concerns a sphere, in which the mentality-body relations are researched via the scientific investigation and clinical practices. Biological psychology studies the biological foundation of the human intellection, feelings, and conducts. The current paper analyzes the biological psychology, which is a major discipline in studying the gender-related differences, especially the gender-related cognitive and behavioral differences. The Topic of Biological Psychology Biological psychology is a study of the physiologic grounds of human conduct. This branch of psychology initially considered the connection between the psychological operations and incumbent physiological occasions (Garrett, 2014, p. 3). It concerns the functioning of the brain and the nervous system in general and in various operations, including intellection, education, sensation, feelings, and apprehension, which are considered the major features of the human brain. Biological psychology has been repeatedly incorporated in researching the physical ground of the inner and outer incentives of the nervous system, especially the optical and aural systems (Garrett, 2014, p. 7). The Origin of Biological Psychology The origin of biological psychology can be traced back to Avicenna, a Persian physician. He considered physiological psychology (the second name for biological psychology) a therapy in the treatment of the illnesses associated with emotions. The scientist developed a system for explaining the alterations in the cardiac rate with the internal emotions (Garrett, 2014, p. 17). Avicenna also developed psychological definitions for the particular somatic diseases. In addition, he used to associate the physical and psychological diseases in general. He asserted that the so-called humidity in the head could cause various mood disorders; the scientist asserted that it developed when the breathing rate altered. In such a manner, felicity elevated the breathing, which caused the raised humidity in the brain. However, in the case the humidity further increased, the brain might lose control over its rationalism and develop certain mental disorders (Garrett, 2014, p. 18). Biological psychology as a scientific branch and discipline had developed from a plenty of scientific and philosophical doctrines of the 18th and 19th centuries (M?ntyl?, 2013, p. 514). The Concept of Human Behavior in Biological Psychology Human behavior is an extremely important concept in biological psychology. Therefore, according to biological psychology, behavior is indissolubly related to somatic or physiological practices, which are produced as a result of the brain’s exposition to susceptible impacts (Garrett, 2014, p. 4). Therefore, biological psychology assumes that the mentality and body have a natural connection; this assertion is supported by the susceptible apprehensions provided by physiology. Recently, many investigations have been conducted in order to cure such conditions as Parkinson’s disease, clinical depression, autism, Alzheimer’s disease, and drug abuse, which all help to stabilize the psychology as such (Garrett, 2014, p. 17). Psychologists of the biological approach conclude that the behavior and practice are determined by the operation of the nervous system. The concepts, which the human beings cognize and sensate, invent and perform are provoked by the electrochemical occasions appearing in and between the neurons, which create the nervous system, especially the neurons in the brain. Many biopsychologists assert that, due to the fact that the evolvement of the brain is defined by the genes an individual intercepts, the conduct may be impacted by genetic agents (Garrett, 2014, p. 12). The Impact of Biological Psychology on the Human Health, Well-Being, and Lifestyle Biological psychology observes the feasible psychological reasons responsible for the health issues, including deficiency of self-discipline, emotional splutter, and negative speculations. When these health issues are solved, a person can improve the overall health and well-being (M?ntyl?, 2013, p. 514). In fact, various biopsychological influences can provoke a biological reaction by inducing the person to hazardous effects. For instance, the doldrums by itself usually do not cause any liver issues. Nevertheless, a depressed individual may develop certain alcohol problems, which, in turn, will affect the liver. Therefore, there might be an increased likelihood of the problems and complications in the future. Biological psychology allows changing the overall lifestyle, which will eliminate the potential difficulties of the mood and behavior disorders (M?ntyl?, 2013, p. 514). Gender-Related Cognitive and Behavioral Differences One of the most important topics in biological psychology is gender differences, particularly, gender-related cognitive and behavioral peculiarities. It is a well-known fact that males and females intermingle, ratiocinate, sensate, apprehend, repute, and love in a different way, due to the fact that they figuratively talk in different languages. Therefore, it is important to understand how distinctive the males and females are. Berninger et al. (2008) conducted a research to investigate the gender differences in terms of the writing and reading disabilities, as these issues are usually caused by the cognitive and behavioral differences. On the other hand, Howell, Davis, and Williams (2008) researched the concept of infant talking peculiarities, which might be also explained by the gender differences. The girls reach the talking stage earlier than the boys do; therefore, they have more practice, knowledge, and confidence in the sphere. Finally, M?ntyl? (2013) researched the gender differences from the perspective of dimensional and spatial ability, as it is considered that males surpass females in this sphere. The question of gender difference cannot be lightly responded not because of the fact that there is a shortage of investigation on the topic, but because the results of the investigations are frequently obscure and conflicting. One cause is provoked by the fact that distinctive investigators approach the same peculiarity in different ways (Garrett, 2014, p. 221). Modern parents endeavor to bring up their children evenly; however, the parents who declare to act this way have been discovered to behave in a different manner and play other games with an infant-girl and an infant-boy. Distinguishes in upbringing could definitely have the responsibility for notable contrast in conduct, character, and self-perspectives (Garrett, 2014, p. 222). There are three major divergences in the social conduct and cognitive operation. Firstly, females have better verbal stirring than males do. Secondly, males surpass females in the visual-dimensional skills (M?ntyl?, 2013, p. 515). Thirdly, males are usually better in mathematics. Finally, males are more bellicose than females. However, it is crucial to affix two additional points. Firstly, there is a notable overextend between males and females in these references. Secondly, the divergences are rather characteristic. For example, it is known that women surpass men in the verbal evenness and writing activity but not in reading perceptivity or lexicon while men’s dimensional performance surpasses the women’s one more in the duties necessary for the mental circumvolution of the three-dimensional target and less in other dimensional problems (Garrett, 2014, p. 224). That is the best argument that the three cognitive divergences mentioned above are impacted by practice; in fact, they have reduced with time due to the fact that the gender functions and roles have altered. In fact, investigation of 7 million students demonstrated that the gender divergence in the ordinary mathematical operation has vanished away in the US, despite the fact that males are of a disproportionally large number at both the lower and the higher poles (Garrett, 2014, p. 225). Similar tendencies were investigated in a research of 89 states. The data received suggest that the advance is caused by the growing gender evenness (Garrett, 2014, p. 225). Furthermore, the effective delirium in the murder scale in various states presupposes that there is a serious cultural impact on the bellicosity, as well (Garrett, 2014, p. 226). Although the environmental impacts perform a crucial function, gender differences in cognition and conduct also oblige a deal to biology. Most frequently, the investigators associate divergences with estrogen and testosterone, especially in the organizational evolvement of the brain during pregnancy. Such an opinion receives backing by the fact that the gender divergences in distinctive brain locations depend on the concentration of sex hormone receptors in these locations (Garrett, 2014, p. 227). The influence of the sex hormones on the brain evolvement is most apparent in people, who have unusual sexual development. In such a manner, males who experience a deficiency of testosterone during puberty are disabled afterwards in dimensional capacity, and testosterone substitution in older male enhances their dimensional operation (M?ntyl?, 2013, p. 515). Male who take estrogens as they consider themselves females (transsexual males) enhances their results in the verbal evenness while their dimensional operation decreases. On the other hand, transsexual females taking testosterone lose verbal excellence but improve dimensional operation (Garrett, 2014, p. 226). Bellicosity in men is partially patrimonial; genetic influences stand for approximately half the divergence in bellicosity, Aggression, in turn, is reasonably consistent in the identical twins even if they are brought up apart (Garrett, 2014, p. 227). According to Howell et al. (2008), an average 20-month old girl has twice as large lexicon as an average 20-month old boy does. This phenomenon is caused by the fact that preschooler females reach the talking stage earlier than boys do; thus, they have more experience. Such an early speaking is practically considered a stereotype concerning the fact that most girls have more advanced verbal capacities (Howell et al., 2008, p. 675). It is very significant for boys to be engaged in the communication with parents and other family members. Girls are eventually willing to speak while boys usually require being stimulated (Garrett, 2014, p. 221). Men are more likely to detect the response and progress (Howell et al., 2008, p. 675). There are a number of characteristics, which prove the fact that the boys usually experience problems with the reading activity; however, the recent data demonstrate that the issue can be easily manages with the reading aloud practice (Berninger et al., 2008, p. 169). Conclusion In fact, the paper demonstrated that biological psychology is a crucial branch of psychology as it investigates the human conduct. The paper showed that there are three major differences in the social conduct and cognitive operation. As a rule, these differences are caused by the parental upbringing and biological issues. In fact, it means that the parental upbringing together with the testosterone and estrogen levels influence the gender-related cognition and conduct patterns from the early childhood. This article is written by Scott Allen who is an editor at https://exclusive-paper.net/